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Fast, high-capacity, low form factor and low power nonvolatile memories are crucial for information and communication technologies (ICT)(http://www. itrs. net/Links/2013ITRS/Home2013. htm). They are already an important part of all electronic systems, representing a growing market segment, and should increase their importance in the future en route to the “Storage everywhere” society. Today’s market is dominated by flash NAND memory and hard disks, and although both currently undergo tremendous increases in performance (with somewhat complementary strengths), they also face severe limitations on the midterm horizon: l Several physical factors will limit the scalability of flash cells beyond 20 nm. And if today’s progress is oriented towards multibit/cell structures or 3-D stacking of memory layers, such implementations might reduce reliability, speed, and yield. l Hard disk storage has had increases comparable to that of a CMOS CPU in density and data transfer rates, but the access time was only slightly reduced from 50 to $5 ms, with no hope to reduce it well beyond this latter value within the “rotating disk” paradigm. The hard disk is already the slowest component of a PC, being replaced by solid-state disks in the most stringent cases. l Volatile DRAM continues to be the fastest memory in today’s market. However, scalability below 20 nm is the main issue. As feature sizes decrease, the DRAM’s capacitor element is
Woodhead Publishing
Publication date: 
27 May 2015

D Ravelosona, L Herrera Diez, W Zhao, M Klaui, B Ockert, R Mantovan

Biblio References: 
Pages: 333
Magnetic Nano-and Microwires: Design, Synthesis, Properties and Applications