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Characterization

IMM has a consolidated tradition in characterizations, due to the high-level expertise and top of the art instrumentation available in its units. In particular, IMM capabilities can be categorized in 5 general fields:

  • Morphological, structural and Chemical characterization
  • Electrical, Electro-chemical and Magneto-electrical characterization
  • Optical characterization
  • Thermal characterization
  • Transversal spectroscopic techniques

A synergic approach is actively developed in each unit and among the different units, to grant a comprehensive assessment of the physical and functional properties of materials and devices, and a crucial knowledge for the design and fabrication of systems for Microelectronics. The activity is also devoted to the development of innovative and non-commercial/standard techniques, methodologies, experimental setups for the study of new materials, devices and phenomena.

While in past years the activity has been mainly devoted to the study of semiconductor materials, presently the characterization techniques are also addressed to the study of low dimensional materials for Nanotechnology and Nanoelectronics. Novel characterization approaches for measuring the physical properties of nanomaterials, and even for locating and identifying atomic configurations within nanostructures, are developed.

Educational and training activities are regularly carried out within the characterization laboratories by the IMM researchers. The characterization facilities are also available to external entities (university users, industries, national partners…).

 

Coordinator: Valentina Mussi

 

An extensive list of characterization techniques available at IMM follows, each technique is followed by a code identifying the units where it is available, for further details see the corresponding links:

MORPHOLOGICAL, STRUCTURAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, HRTEM) CHQ, B, L
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, environmental SEM) CHQ, C, A, B, L, R
  • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) A, R
  • Dual Beam Microscopy (FIB-SEM) CHQ , B, L
  • Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) CHQ, B
  • Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) CHQ
  • Optical Microscopy CHQ, L
  • X-Ray Diffaction (XRD) CHQ, A, B, R
  • X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR) A, B
  • X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA) A
  • X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) A, R
  • Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, MicroRaman/TERS integrated) CHQ, C, A, L, R
  • Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) A
  • Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) A
  • On-line Mössbauer spectroscopy @ ISOLDE-CERN A
  • Contact Angle measurement system C
  • BET surface area analyser C
  • IR Spectrophotometry C
  • Scanning Microwave Microscopy R
  • TDS-THZ Imaging R
  • Ellipsometry CHQ
  • E-Line HR EBL CHQ
  • Raman Microscopy-TERS CHQ, R
  • Micro-Photoluminescence CHQ
  • Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) A
  • Total Organic Carbon Analyser C
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) R
  • Gas sensor characterization R
ELECTRICAL, ELECTRO-CHEMICAL AND MAGNETO-ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION
  • Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) A
  • Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) CHQ, C, A, R
  • Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) A
  • Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) A, R
  • Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPE) A
  • Magnetotransport Facility (Magnetoresistance) A
  • Quantum transport (Criomagnet @ He temperature) A
  • Potentiometry C, R
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy-Cathodoluminescence C
  • Probe-Stations for AC/DC/pulsed measurements CHQ, A, B, L, R
  • Impedence analyzer L, R
  • Electrodynamic Skaker R, L
  • Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) R
  • Vector network analyser R
  • Probe for thin films piezoelectric characterization R
  • Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) CHQ
  • Hall Effect Measurement System CHQ, A, B, L
  • PAR-apparatus CHQ
  • Four points sheet resistance CHQ
  • Electro-optical characterization CHQ, L
  • Spreading Resistance Probe CHQ
  • Piezometer L
  • Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy with LCR Meter L
  • Setup for spectral photocurrent and photocurrent mapping L
  • Setup for deep levels and current dynamics characterization L
  • Setup for optically induced electrical pulses in lipidic membranes L
  • In-situ TEM under electrical and chemical stimuli B
  • In-situ TEM/STEM under optical stimuli CHQ
  • Low current electrochemical characterization in solution and solid-state B
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy B
  • Photo-electrochemical characterization B
OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION
  • Micro-Raman spectroscopy (multi wavelength, vis UV, thermal stage) CHQ, A, R
  • Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) A, R, B
  • Ultraviolet-Visible-near Infrared Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis-NIR) C, A, B, L, R
  • Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) A
  • CW and ps-ns Photoluminescence (Time resolved) C, L, R
  • Electroluminescence C
  • IR Spectrophotometry C
  • UV-LED Lamp C
  • Optical/Polarization Microscopy R
  • Near-Field Microscopy R
  • Lasers CHQ
  • Photovoltaic lab CHQ
  • Solar Cell Characterization/Simulator CHQ, C, B
  • Photo/Electro-Reflectance L
  • Photocurrent spectroscopy L
  • Confocal Optical Microscope for microPL and microRaman 2D Mapping- Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) L
  • Streak camera for 1 ps Time Resoved Spectroscopy L
  • Electro-optical setup based on Pockels effect L
  • Plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF) L
  • Integrated AFM-MicroRaman-TERS system L
  • Setup for SPR and LSPR in Krestchamn and optic fiber configuration L
  • Spectrofluorimetry L
  • Laser doppler vibrometer B
  • Characterization of the frequency response of optical devices B
  • Characterization of the polarization of optical signals B
  • 12 GHz and 150 MHz band optical characterization B
THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION
  • Raman Thermography R
  • 3-omega van der Pauw thermal resistivity A
  • In-situ TEM under thermal stress, B
  • In-situ TEM/STEM under cryogenic temperature CHQ
SPECTROSCOPIES
  • Micro-Raman spectroscopy (multi wavelength vis UV, thermal stage) A, R
  • Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) A, B, R
  • Ultraviolet-Visible-near Infrared Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis-NIR) C, A, B, R
  • Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) A
  • Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPE) A
  • 57Fe and 119Sn Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) A
  • On-line Mössbauer spectroscopy @ ISOLDE-CERN A
  • IR Spectrophotometry C
  • Scanning Microwave Microscopy R
  • Terahertz time-domain (TDS-THZ) Spectroscopy/Imaging R
  • Transient Absorption Spectroscopy R
  • CW and ps-ns Time Resolved Photoluminesce L, R
  • X-Ray Spectroscopy CHQ
  • Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy CHQ
  • Photo/Electro-Reflectance L
  • Photocurrent spectroscopy L
  • Confocal Optical Microscope for microPL and microRaman 2D Mapping- Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) L
  • Streak camera for 1 ps Time Resolved Spectroscopy L
  • Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (MS) and gas sensor L
  • TEM/STEM-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy CHQ, L
  • TEM/STEM-Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy CHQ, L