We have investigated in-diffusion of phosphorus into monocrystalline silicon by depositing a phosphorus source on the surface followed by millisecond flash lamp annealing (FLA) to form shallow emitters for solar cells. By varying both the energy density of a 20 ms flash in the range from 62 to 132 J/cm2 and the sample preheating, it is observed that FLA treatments can in-diffuse a high concentration of phosphorus atoms becoming electrically active. The most promising emitters are obtained after FLA in the energy range from 110 to 128 J/cm2 including preheating at 300 °C with a peak concentration of 4−6×1020cm−3. The emitter junction depth for these treatments is in the range of 100 nm to 200 nm, respectively.
1 Apr 2013
Volume: 102 Issue: 13 Pages: 132108
Applied Physics Letters