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Carbon-based top electrodes for hole-transporting-layer-free perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were made by hot press (HP) transfer of a free-standing carbon-aluminum foil at 100°C and at a pressure of 0.1 MPa on a methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) layer. Under these conditions, the perovskite surface was preserved from interaction with the solvent. Over a timescale of 90 days, HP-PSCs were systematically compared to reference cells with carbon-based top electrodes deposited by doctor blading (DB). We found that all the photovoltaic parameters recorded in HP-PSCs during time under ambient conditions settled on values systematically higher than those measured in the reference DB-PSCs, with efficiency stabilized at around 6% within the first few measurements. On the other hand, in DB-PSCs, a long-lasting (~14 days) degrading transient of the performances was observed, with a loss of efficiency from an initial ~8% to ~3%. Moreover, in HP-PSCs, a systematic day-by-day recovery of the efficiency after operation was observed (Δ~2%) by leaving the cell under open circuit, a nitrogen environment, and dark conditions. Noteworthily, a full recovery of all the parameters was observed at the end of the experiment, while DB-PSCs showed only a partial recovery under the same conditions. Hence, the complete release of solvent from the carbon contact, before an interface is established with the perovskite layer, offers a definite advantage through the long period of operation in preventing irreversible degradation. Our findings indeed highlight the crucial role of the interfaces and their feasible preservation under nitrogen atmosphere.
Frontiers Media SA
Publication date: 
17 Apr 2020

Salvatore Valastro, Emanuele Smecca, Salvatore Sanzaro, Ioannis Deretzis, Antonino La Magna, Youhei Numata, Ajay Kumar Jena, Tsutomu Miyasaka, Antonio Gagliano, Alessandra Alberti

Biblio References: 
Volume: 8 Pages: 200
Frontiers in Chemistry