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The realization of equilibrium superradiant quantum phases (photon condensates) in a spatially uniform quantum cavity field is forbidden by a “no-go” theorem stemming from gauge invariance. We here show that the no-go theorem does not apply to spatially varying quantum cavity fields. We find a criterion for its occurrence that depends solely on the static, nonlocal orbital magnetic susceptibility χ orb (q), of the electronic system (ES) evaluated at a cavity photon momentum ℏ q. Only 3DESs satisfying the Condon inequality χ orb (q)> 1/(4 π) can harbor photon condensation. For the experimentally relevant case of two-dimensional (2D) ESs embedded in quasi-2D cavities the criterion again involves χ orb (q) but also the vertical size of the cavity. We use these considerations to identify electronic properties that are ideal for photon condensation. Our theory is nonperturbative in the strength of electron-electron …
American Physical Society
Publication date: 
21 Sep 2020

GM Andolina, FMD Pellegrino, V Giovannetti, AH MacDonald, M Polini

Biblio References: 
Volume: 102 Issue: 12 Pages: 125137
Physical Review B