-A A +A
The microscopic mechanisms involving dopants, contaminants, and defects in Ge during pulsed melting laser thermal annealing (LTA) are investigated in detail. Samples both un-implanted and implanted with As or B are processed by LTA as well as characterized in terms of chemical (1D and 3D), electrical, and strain profiling. The clustering of As is directly measured by 3D chemical profiling and correlated with its partial electrical activation along with a reduction of the lattice strain induced by As atoms. A semi-quantitative microscopic model involving the interaction with mobile As-vacancy (AsV) complexes is proposed to describe the clustering mechanism. Boron is shown to follow different clustering behavior that changes with depth and marked by completely different strain levels. Oxygen penetrates from the surface into all the samples as a result of LTA and, only in un-implanted Ge, it occupies an interstitial position inducing also positive strain in the lattice. On the contrary, data suggest that the presence of As or B forces O to assume different configurations with negligible strain, through O-V or O-B interactions for the two dopant species, respectively. These data suggest that LTA does not inject a significant amount of vacancies in Ge, at variance with Si, unless As atoms or possibly other n-type dopants are present. These results have to be carefully considered for modeling the LTA process in Ge and its implementation in technology.
Publication date: 
28 Jan 2016

D De Salvador, A Carnera, E Napolitani, G Impellizzeri, V Privitera, D Piccinotti, A La Magna, G Fortunato, A Portavoce, D Mangelinck

Biblio References: 
Volume: 119 Issue: 4
Journal of Applied Physics