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Halloysite surface was modified with tetrabutylammonium iodide, and then the obtained nanomaterial was used as support for ZnO nanoparticles. After characterization, the nanomaterial was used as a catalyst for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production. The recyclability of the nanomaterial was also investigated, and the optimization of reaction conditions by the design of experiments approach was performed as well. In addition, the synthesized nanomaterial was tested as a catalyst for FAME production from a series of waste lipids affording biodiesel in moderate to good yields (35–95%), depending on the matrix. To fully exploit the feasibility of clay minerals as catalysts in biodiesel formation, a screening of different clays and clay minerals with different morphologies and compositions, such as sepiolite, palygorskite, bentonite, and hectorite was also performed in the esterification of FFAs (a mixture of 1:1 …
Publication date: 
15 Sep 2023

Michele Casiello, Stefano Savino, Marina Massaro, Leonarda Francesca Liotta, Giuseppe Nicotra, Carlo Pastore, Caterina Fusco, Antonio Monopoli, Lucia D'Accolti, Angelo Nacci, Serena Riela

Biblio References: 
Volume: 242 Pages: 107048
Applied Clay Science