A combined powder X-ray lattice parameter and ceramic impedance spectroscopy study is presented on materials within the CaO–CuO–TiO2 ternary phase diagram. Several compositions containing CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) and small amounts of secondary phases such as TiO2, CaTiO3 and CuO are analysed and two different defect mechanisms are identified as the cause of the non-stoichiometry in CCTO. The first mechanism involves a variation in the Cu content, which explains the large differences in the intrinsic bulk and extrinsic grain boundary (GB) resistance, and the formation of the ceramic internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) structure. The second mechanism is associated with Ca–Cu anti-site disorder causing an unusually high intrinsic bulk permittivity above that predicted from Clausius–Mossotti calculations.
Royal Society of Chemistry
1 Jan 2013
Volume: 3 Issue: 34 Pages: 14580-14589