Skype ID: alessandro_molle
The Book of the Xenes
by Alessandro Molle & Carlo Grazianetti
(July 1st, 2022)
This is the first full-comprehensive book of the Xenes. You can find the updated list of nowadays available Xenes, and all their relevant properties and applications.
Available for purchase at the Elsevier website.
ERC CoG 2017 "XFab" Grant N. 772261
ERC PoC 2022 "XMem" Grant N. 101069262
Press release, @StampaCnr
Xenes on the media
TV & Radio
RaiPlay - Superquark+ (Sept. 2020) [ita]
Rai 3 - TGLeonardo (2019) [ita]
RaiPlay - Rai Cultura (2019) [ita]
E-MRS Tv (2019) [eng]
Rai1-UnoMattina (11 Dec 2017) [ita]
Rad io3 [ita]
Radio24 "SmartCity" (8 March 2017)
Il Sole24Ore "Scenari" (2 March 2020)
La Stampa "TuttoScienze" (2018)
Il Sole24Ore "Nova" (3 Dec 2017)
Short Bio. Alessandro Molle graduated in 2001 at the University of Genova (Italy) with a master thesis on the nanocrystal formation during the homoepitaxial growth Al/Al(110). He obtained the PhD degree in Materials Science at the same University in April, 2005 with a thesis on the sputter-induced fabrication of periodic and nanoscaled patterns on fcc (110) metal surfaces after spending several beam times at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble . He lso focused on the use of High Resolution Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED). In February 2005, he joined the MDM National Laboratory (formerly with INFM, now with the CNR-IMM) as a Post-Doc Fellow involved in the Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of high-k oxide thin films on semiconductor and of semiconductor thin films on metal oxides within the European Project ET4US. His activity was related to the in situ structural and chemical characterization of thin films by means of Reflection High Energy Reflection (RHEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (LEISS). He was then involved in the surface passivation of high-mobility semiconductors (Ge and III-V compunds), for the subsequent deposition of high-k materials targeting ultra-scaled metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures for a Post-Si era of digital devices (in the framework of bilateral collaboration projects with IMEC, Belgium).
He was the principal investigator at CNR-IMM in the research activity related to the European Project "2D-Nanolattices: Strongly Anisotropic Graphite-like Semiconductor-Dielectric 2D Nanolattices" started from June 1st, 2011.The core-idea of that activity is to identify the basic properties of the epitaxial silicene, namely the silicon counterpart of graphene, including the structural arrangement, the elelctronic state, and the vibrational spectrum. Integration of epitaxial silicene in a field effect transistor has been achieved in collaboration with the group of Prof. Akinwande, Univ. of Texas at Austin. He currently supervised the unit activity on 2D materials beyond graphene including the epitaxial growth of Xenes (silicene, germanene, stanene, and phosphorene) on substrates, and the chemical vapor deposition of flat and patterned nanosheets of transistion metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, WS2, etc.). He has been awarded an ERC COG 2017 grant (XFab) on the fabrication and technological implementation of Xenes.
Skills. Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and in situ surface characterization (RHEED, XPS, LEIS, STM);
Admittance spectroscopy and electrical characterization of MOS capacitor;
Raman scattering spectroscopy.
Projects. Local PI in the framework of the the FP7 FET-Open project "2D-Nanolattices" (201-14); PI of the CNR grant "Joint Lab" in collaboration with the group of Prof. Akinwande, Univ. of Texas at Austin (2014-17); PI of the "CrystEL" project founded by the Fondazione CARIPLO and Regione Lombardia aiming at the enhanced competitiveness within the ERC calls (18 month since Oct. 2016), and local PI of the regional project "I-ZEB" founded by Regione Lombardia and CNR; Local PI of the I-ZEB project funded by Regione Lombardia; PI of the ERC-COG 2017 grant "XFab" project.
Dissemination. In 2010, he co-chaired Symposium H "Post-Si CMOS electronic devices: the role of Ge and III-V materials" at the E-MRS 2010 Spring Meeting; Symposium I "The route to Post-Si CMOS devices: from high-mobility channels to graphene-like nanosheets" at the E-MRS 2013 Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, the Symposium Z "Two-dimensional crystals and their van der Waals heterostructures for nanoelectronics", E-MRS 2016 Spring Meeting, Lille; Symposium NM06 "Theory and Characterization of 2D Materials - Bridging Atomic Structutre and Device Performance", MRS 2020 Spring Meeting, Phoenix (AZ).
He is co-editor of a book entitled "2D materials for nanoelectronics" published CRC Press (Taylor & Francis group). He is co-authors of two topical reviews ("Silicene:A review of recent experimental and theoretical investigations" published by J. Phys: Cond. Matter and "Two-dimensional silicon: the advent of silicene" published on 2D Materials) and a monographic chapter on the topic of silicene and Xenes. He is author and co-athor of more than 75 peer-reviewed articles in international scientific journals, he received more than 20 invitations to international conferences (including APS, ECS , and AVS meeting) for his contributions to the Ge/III-V issues and 2D materials issues, and he served as reviewer for European universities and institutions, and for several scientific journals (including Advanced Materials, Nano Letters, Physical Review Letters,).
Find me on:
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3860-4120
Scopus Author ID: 15123116600
Eleonora Bonaventura*, Daya Sagar Dhungana, Christian Martella*, Carlo Grazianetti*, Salavtore Macis, Stefano Lupi, Emiliano Bonera, Alessandro Molle,* "Optical and thermal responses of silicene in Xene heterostructures" Nanoscale Horiz. 2022 (open access) https://doi.org/10.1039/D2NH00219A
Two-dimensional Xene heterostructures
Daya Sagar Dhungana, Carlo Grazianetti*, Christian Martella, Simona Achilli, Guido Fratesi*, Alessandro Molle,* "Two-dimensional silicene-stanene heterostructures by epitaxy" Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202102797 (Open Access)
Can stanene grow on sapphire?
Carlo Grazianetti, Eleonora Bonaventura, Christian Martella, Alessandro Molle,* and Stefano Lupi*, "Optical Properties of Stanene-like Nanosheets on Al2O3(0001): Implications for Xene Photonics" ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2021 https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.0c03221 (Open Access)
The MoS2 plasmonics quartet
M. Bhatnagar et al., "Broadband and Tunable Light Harvesting in Nanorippled MoS2 Ultrathin Films" ACS Appl. Mater. Interf. 2021 (Open Access);
A. Camellini et al., "Evidence of Plasmon Enhanced Charge Transfer in Large-Area Hybrid Au–MoS2 Metasurface" Adv. Opt. Mater 2020
C. Mennucci et al, "Geometrical Engineering of Giant Optical Dichroism in Rippled MoS2 Nanosheets" Adv. Opt. Mater. 2020
M. Bhatnagar et al.,"Ultra-broadband photon harvesting in large-area few-layer MoS2 nanostripe gratings" Nanoscale 2020 (Open Access)
Epitaxial Phosphorene at hand
C. Martella, G. Faraone, M. H. Alam, D. Tanneja, L. Tao. G. Scavia, E. Bonera, C. Grazianetti, D. Akinwande, and A. Molle, "Disassembling Silicene from Native Substrate and Transferring onto an Arbitrary Target Substrate" Adv. Funct. Mater. 2020 https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202004546 (Open Access)
Epitaxial Phosphorene at hand
C. Grazianetti, G. Faraone, C.Martella, E. Bonera, and A. Molle, "Embedding epitaxial (blue) phosphorene in between device-compatible functional layers" Nanoscale (2019) DOI: 10.1039/C9NR06037E (Open Acces)
Optical conductivity of 2D silicon
C. Grazianetti, S. La Rosa, C. Martella, P. Targa, D. Codegoni, P. gori, O. Pulci, A. Molle*, and S. Lupi*, "Optical Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Silicon: Evidence of Dirac Electrodynamics" Nano Letters 2018, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03169
All about silicene
A. Molle, C. Grazianetti*, L. Tao*, D. Taneja, Md. Hasibul Halam, and D. Akiwande*, "Silicene, silicene derivatives, and theri device applications" Chem. Soc. Rev. 2018, 47, 6370-6387 DOI:10.1039/C8CS00338F (2018)
Anisotropy at the 2D level by design
C. Martella, C. Mennucci, A. Lamperti, E. Cappelluti,
F. Buatier de Mongeot, and A. Molle*, "Designer Shape Anisotropy on Transition-Metal-Dichalcogenide Nanosheets", Advanced Materials (2018), DOI: 10.1002/adma.201705615
Silicene goes Multilayer!
C. Grazianetti, E. Cinquanta, L. Tao, P. De Padova, C. Quaresima, C. Ottaviani, D. Akinwande, and A. Molle, "Silicon Nanosheets: Crossover between Multilayer Silicene and Diamond-like Growth Regime" ACS Nano (2017), DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b00762
A perspective on two-dimensional Xenes
A. Molle, J. Goldberger, M. Houssa, Y. Xu, S.-C. Zhang, and D. Akinwande,
Nature Materials, 16, 163 (2017) DOI: 10.1038/NMAT4802 (2017)
The silicene transistor
L. Tao, E. Cinquanta, D. Chiappe, C. Grazianetti, M. Fanciulli, M. Dubey, A. Molle, and D. Akinwande, "Silicene field-effect-transistors operating at room temperature" Nature Nanotechnology 10, 227 (2015), doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.325
See also: "2D Materials: Silicene Transistors", G. Le Lay, Nature Nnotechnology | News & Views, doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.10
- 2D buckled Xene sheets. Growing new 2D materials of single element X ranging from silicene to germanene to stanene and phosphorene, generally termed Xenes, is a new research frontier aiming to expand the common knowledge in materials science, nanotechnology, and physics. The activity basically relies on the epitaxy on substrates and subsequent processing towards device integration. One approach is the encapsulation + delamination from cleavable substrates, see the realization of the silicene transistor here. An alternative aproach is Xene template engineering, namely the quest for substrate suitable for the commensurate growth or the van der Waals epitaxy of a Xene single layer. See the case of silicene on MoS2 here and the related heterosheet transistor here. MSc/PhD thesis openings available for this activity.
- Chemical vapor deposition of transistion metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and their van der Waals heterostructures. TMDs like MoS2 are one of the more feasible 2D platform for nanotechnology. They can be utilized in nanoelectronics (eithr for logic and memory devices as well as for flexible electronics), optolectronics, photonics, chemical and bio- sensing, energy and hydrogen evolution reaction, etc. The big challenge for the TMD production is the large-scale synthesis. We address this issue by a cost-effective furnace-based chemical vapor deposition approach starting from a solid film precursor of the transition metal on a substrate (for more details see here). This approach enables us to have large area, conformal and thickness controlled TMD nanosheets that can be used as building blocks for van der Waal heterostructures. Target applications are: ultra-scaled field effect transistors, hybrid heterostructures for light emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells. MSc/PhD thesis openings available for this activity.
- Anisotropy at the 2D level. TMD as well graphene are isotropic in nature. Making them anisotropic may open a wealth of unexplored properties descending from the local manipulation of the 2D lattice. We induce a one-directional anisotropy in MoS2 nanosheet as a consequence of a conformal growth on a pre-patterned substrate. Target applications are: exciton engineering and strain tuning towards single photon emitter production, platforms for hydrogen evolution reaction. MSc thesis openings available for this activity.
- Transition metal ditellurides as Weyl semimetal ultrathin films. MoTe2 and WTe2 can be synthesized as ultrathin films and reduced to a octahedral phase hosting so-called Weyl fermions in their electronic structure. This may lead to to the emergence of topological Weyl semimetallic state in an ultrathin film configuration with high potential for technology applications. One example in this respect is the coupling with a ferromagnetic counterpart so as to follow new paths for spin manipulation towards spintronics forefronts. This route will be followed within the framework of a H2020 FET-Proactive project "Skytop" at the CNR-IMM.