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Surname: 
Longo
Firstname: 
Massimo
Position: 
Staff
Profile: 
Researcher
Phone: 
+39 039 603 5085
Activity: 

MOCVD synthesis and thermo-electrical analysis of chalcogenide nanomaterials (1D and 2D). Main application area: non volatile phase change memory (PCM). Seed activities: nanostructured chalcogenides for spintronics, topological insulators and thermoelectrical materials.

Curriculum: 

Massimo Longo received the Laurea degree in Physics in 1993. During his thesis work he acquired the know-how of the Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy process (MOVPE). In 1994 he had an INFM post-lauream grant, working on the “Study of MOVPE growth of II-VI semiconductor layers” (Lecce Research Unit). During 1994-97 he attended the PhD course in Physics. Research topic: growth optimization and study of the chemical-physical processes taking place during the MOVPE growth of II-VI/GaAs heterostructures. During 1998-99 he worked with an INFM Post-Doc fellowship at the Unit of Research in Lecce. Research topics: MOVPE growth of quantum confined epitaxial nanostructures, based on III-V compounds (GaAs, InGaAs and AlGaAs) for infra-red oparating devices and nitride compounds (GaN, AlGaN ed InGaN) for optoelectronic devices operating in the blue-UV. In 1999-2002 he had an INFM grant for the MOVPE growth of heterostrucures based on InP for micro- and optoelectronic applications; during such period he directed the installation of the MOVPE Laboratory of the University of Parma (Italy), operating since 2001. From 2002 to 2007 he was a researcher for INFM (subsequently CNR-INFM) at the Department of Physics of the University of Parma, being also responsible of the epitaxial growth activity. Main research topics: MOVPE growth of arsenide and phosphide compounds for high efficiency, multi quantum well solar cells, devoted to terrestrial applications and MOVPE growth of structures for the study of the effects of iron ion implantation for microelectronic applications. During 2002-2007 he also worked in teaching, orientation and organizing for the University of Parma.

Since 2007 he is a researcher at the former National Laboratory MDM of Agrate Brianza (Milano), currently CNR-IMM, supervising the synthesis by Metalorganic Chemical vapour Deposition (MOCVD) and characterization of chalcogenides for nanoelectronics and thermoelectrics. After coordinating national and bilateral projects on materials and nanostructures for PCM, he has coordinated the European EU-FP7 Project SYNAPSE (http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/106204_en.html).

As for the joint activities of CNR-IMM with Micron ed STMicroelectronics, he has been acting since 2009 as the key-person for PCM memories, organizing the characterization of the involved materials through the analysis of the electrical transport (I-V, resisitvity), magnetic field (Hall effect) and thermal properties (3 Ω method).

Since November 2018 he is key investigator within the EU H2020 FET PROACT project SKYTOP, in relation to the MOCVD Synthesis of topological insulator chalcogenide materials for spintronic applications 

Since January 2019 he is Workpackage leader for the materials development in the EU project  H2020 ICT BeforeHand (2019-2021), devoted to the study of chalcogenide heterostructures for innovative phase change devices combining memory and computation capabilities.

Source: 

Scientific Productions

Raimondo Cecchini, Christian Martella, Stefano Brivio, Francesca Rossi, Laura Lazzarini, Enrico Varesi, Massimo Longo

Fabrication of ordered Sb-Te and In-Ge-Te nanostructures by selective MOCVD

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics [IOP Publishing],

Raimondo Cecchini, Raja SR Gajjela, Christian Martella, Claudia Wiemer, Alessio Lamperti, Lucia Nasi, Laura Lazzarini, Luca G Nobili, Massimo Longo

High‐Density Sb2Te3 Nanopillars Arrays by Templated, Bottom‐Up MOCVD Growth

Small [], Pages: 1901743

E Longo, C Wiemer, R Cecchini, M Longo, A Lamperti, A Khanas, A Zenkevich, M Fanciulli, R Mantovan

Chemical, structural and magnetic properties of the Fe/Sb2Te3 interface

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [North-Holland], Volume: 474 Pages: 632-636

R Cecchini, S Selmo, C Wiemer, M Fanciulli, E Rotunno, L Lazzarini, M Rigato, D Pogany, A Lugstein, M Longo

In-doped Sb nanowires grown by MOCVD for high speed phase change memories.

Micro and Nano Engineering [Elsevier], Volume: 2 Pages: 117-121

E Longo, C Wiemer, R Cecchini, M Longo, A Lamperti, A Khanas, A Zenkevich, M Fanciulli, R Mantovan

Chemical, structural and magnetic properties of the Fe/Sb2Te3 interface

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [North-Holland],

R Cecchini, S Selmo, C Wiemer, M Fanciulli, E Rotunno, L Lazzarini, M Rigato, D Pogany, A Lugstein, M Longo

In-doped Sb nanowires grown by MOCVD for high speed phase change memories

Micro and Nano Engineering [Elsevier], Volume: 2 Pages: 117-121

Raimondo Cecchini, Roberto Mantovan, Claudia Wiemer, Lucia Nasi, Laura Lazzarini, Massimo Longo

Weak Antilocalization in Granular Sb2Te3 Thin Films Deposited by MOCVD

physica status solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters [WILEY? VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH], Volume: 12 Issue: 8 Pages: 1800155

Raimondo Cecchini, Simone Selmo, Claudia Wiemer, Enzo Rotunno, Laura Lazzarini, Marta De Luca, Ilaria Zardo, Massimo Longo

Single-step Au-catalysed synthesis and microstructural characterization of core–shell Ge/In–Te nanowires by MOCVD

Materials Research Letters [Taylor & Francis], Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 29-35

Raimondo Cecchini, Roberto Mantovan, Claudia Wiemer, Lucia Nasi, Laura Lazzarini, Massimo Longo

Weak Antilocalization in Granular Sb2Te3 Thin Films Deposited by MOCVD

physica status solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters [WILEY? VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH], Pages: 1800155

R Mantovan, R Fallica, A Mokhles Gerami, TE Mølholt, C Wiemer, M Longo, HP Gunnlaugsson, K Johnston, H Masenda, D Naidoo, M Ncube, K Bharuth-Ram, M Fanciulli, Hafliði Pétur Gislason, Guido Langouche, Sveinn Olafsson, G Weyer

Atomic-scale study of the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition mechanism in GeTe thin films.

Scientific reports [Nature Publishing Group], Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 8234

M. Longo J.-L Battaglia, A. Saci, I. De, R. Cecchini, S. Selmo, M. Fanciulli, S. Cecchi

Thermal resistance measurement of In3SbTe2 nanowires

Physica Status Solidi A [], Volume: 214 Issue: 5 Pages: 1600500

Raimondo Cecchini, Simone Selmo, Claudia Wiemer, Enzo Rotunno, Laura Lazzarini, Marta De Luca, Ilaria Zardo, Massimo Longo

Single-step Au-catalysed synthesis and microstructural characterization of core–shell Ge/In–Te nanowires by MOCVD

Materials Research Letters [Taylor & Francis], Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 29-35

S Selmo, R Cecchini, S Cecchi, C Wiemer, M Fanciulli, E Rotunno, L Lazzarini, M Rigato, D Pogany, A Lugstein, M Longo

Low power phase change memory switching of ultra-thin In3Sb1Te2 nanowires

Applied Physics Letters [AIP Publishing], Volume: 109 Issue: 21 Pages: 213103

F Fabbri, E Rotunno, E Cinquanta, D Campi, E Bonnini, D Kaplan, L Lazzarini, M Bernasconi, C Ferrari, M Longo, G Nicotra, A Molle, V Swaminathan, G Salviati

Novel near-infrared emission from crystal defects in MoS2 multilayer flakes

Nature communications [Nature Publishing Group], Volume: 7 Pages: 13044

Christian Martella, Pierpaolo Melloni, Eugenio Cinquanta, Elena Cianci, Mario Alia, Massimo Longo, Alessio Lamperti, Silvia Vangelista, Marco Fanciulli, Alessandro Molle

Engineering the Growth of MoS2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of Molybdenum Oxide Film Precursor

Advanced Electronic Materials [], Volume: 2 Issue: 10 Pages: 1600330

E Rotunno, M Longo, L Lazzarini

Ageing of GeTe nanowires

Microscopie [], Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 58-63

J‐L Battaglia, A Kusiak, C Gaborieau, Y Anguy, HT Nguyen, C Wiemer, R Fallica, D Campi, M Bernasconi, M Longo

Evolution of thermal conductivity of In3Sbβ Teγ thin films up to 550° C

physica status solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters [WILEY‐VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH], Volume: 10 Issue: 7 Pages: 544-548

Alessandro Molle, Filippo Fabbri, Davide Campi, Alessio Lamperti, Enzo Rotunno, Eugenio Cinquanta, Laura Lazzarini, Daniel Kaplan, Venkataraman Swaminathan, Marco Bernasconi, Massimo Longo, Giancarlo Salviati

Evidence of Native Cs Impurities and Metal–Insulator Transition in MoS2 Natural Crystals

Advanced Electronic Materials [], Volume: 2 Issue: 6 Pages: 1600091

E Rotunno, F Fabbri, E Cinquanta, D Kaplan, M Longo, L Lazzarini, A Molle, V Swaminathan, G Salviati

Structural, optical and compositional stability of MoS2 multi-layer flakes under high dose electron beam irradiation

2D Materials [IOP Publishing], Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 025024

Silvia Vangelista, Eugenio Cinquanta, Christian Martella, Mario Alia, Massimo Longo, Alessio Lamperti, Roberto Mantovan, Francesco Basso Basset, Fabio Pezzoli, Alessandro Molle

Towards a uniform and large-scale deposition of MoS2 nanosheets via sulfurization of ultra-thin Mo-based solid films

Nanotechnology [IOP Publishing], Volume: 27 Issue: 17 Pages: 175703

S Selmo, S Cecchi, R Cecchini, C Wiemer, M Fanciulli, E Rotunno, L Lazzarini, M Longo

MOCVD growth and structural characterization of In–Sb–Te nanowires

physica status solidi (a) [], Volume: 213 Issue: 2 Pages: 335-338

Enzo Rotunno, Massimo Longo, Claudia Wiemer, Roberto Fallica, Davide Campi, Marco Bernasconi, Andrew R Lupini, Stephen J Pennycook, Laura Lazzarini

A Novel Sb2Te3 Polymorph Stable at the Nanoscale

Chemistry of Materials [American Chemical Society], Volume: 27 Issue: 12 Pages: 4368-4373

C. Canevali, M. Alia, M. Fanciulli, M. Longo, R. Ruffo, C. Mari

Influence of doping elements on the formation rate of silicon nanowires by silver-assisted chemical etching

Surface & Coatings Technology [Elsevier], Volume: 280 Pages: 37–42

Abdelhak Saci, Jean-Luc Battaglia, Andrzej Kusiak, Roberto Fallica, Massimo Longo

Thermal conductivity measurement of a Sb2Te3 phase change nanowire

Applied Physics Letters [AIP], Volume: 104 Issue: 26 Pages: 263103

Roberto Fallica, Claudia Wiemer, Toni Stoycheva, Elena Cianci, Massimo Longo, Huu Tan Nguyen, Andrzej Kusiak, Jean-Luc Battaglia

Thermal properties of In–Sb–Te films and interfaces for phase change memory devices

Microelectronic Engineering [Elsevier], Volume: 120 Pages: 3-8

Roberto Fallica, Enrico Varesi, Luca Fumagalli, Simona Spadoni, Massimo Longo, Claudia Wiemer

Effect of nitrogen doping on the thermal conductivity of GeTe thin films

physica status solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters [WILEY‐VCH Verlag], Volume: 7 Issue: 12 Pages: 1107-1111

Roberto Fallica, Toni Stoycheva, Claudia Wiemer, Massimo Longo

Structural and electrical analysis of In–Sb–Te‐based PCM cells

physica status solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters [WILEY‐VCH Verlag], Volume: 7 Issue: 11 Pages: 1009-1013

M Longo, T Stoycheva, R Fallica, C Wiemer, L Lazzarini, E Rotunno

Au-catalyzed synthesis and characterisation of phase change Ge-doped Sb–Te nanowires by MOCVD

Journal of Crystal Growth [North-Holland], Volume: 370 Pages: 323-327

T Stoycheva, M Longo, R Fallica, F Volpe, C Wiemer

Growth study and characterization of In–Sb–Te compounds deposited onto different substrates by metal–organic chemical vapour deposition

Thin Solid Films [Elsevier], Volume: 533 Pages: 66-69

Laura Lazzarini, Enzo Rotunno, Vincenzo Grillo, Massimo Longo

Determination of the atomic stacking sequence of Ge-Sb-Te nanowires by HAADF STEM

MRS Online Proceedings Library Archive [Cambridge University Press], Volume: 1512

Enzo Rotunno, Laura Lazzarini, Massimo Longo, Vincenzo Grillo

Crystal structure assessment of Ge–Sb–Te phase change nanowires

Nanoscale [Royal Society of Chemistry], Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 1557-1563

Roberto Fallica, Flavio Volpe, Massimo Longo, Claudia Wiemer, Olivier Salicio, Adulfas Abrutis

Electronic properties of crystalline Ge1-xSbxTey thin films

Applied Physics Letters [AIP], Volume: 101 Issue: 10 Pages: 102105

Roberto Jakomin, Antonella Parisini, Luciano Tarricone, Massimo Longo, Beatrice Fraboni, Salvatore Vantaggio

On the electrical properties of Si-doped InGaP layers grown by low pressure‐metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

Thin Solid Films [Elsevier], Volume: 520 Issue: 21 Pages: 6619-6625

Massimo Longo, Roberto Fallica, Claudia Wiemer, Olivier Salicio, Marco Fanciulli, Enzo Rotunno, Laura Lazzarini

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of phase change Ge1Sb2Te4 nanowires

Nano letters [American Chemical Society], Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 1509-1515

M Fanciulli, A Vellei, C Canevali, S Baldovino, Giovanni Pennelli, M Longo

Electrically detected magnetic resonance of donors and interfacial defects in silicon nanowires

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters [American Scientific Publishers], Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 568-574

M Longo, C Wiemer, O Salicio, M Fanciulli, L Lazzarini, E Rotunno

Au-catalyzed self assembly of GeTe nanowires by MOCVD

Journal of Crystal Growth [North-Holland], Volume: 315 Issue: 1 Pages: 152-156

Philipp Leiprecht, Paul Kühler, Massimo Longo, Paul Leiderer, Carmen N Afonso, Jan Siegel

Exploiting optical near fields for phase change memories

Applied Physics Letters [AIP], Volume: 98 Issue: 1 Pages: 013103

Jan Siegel, D Puerto, J Solis, Francisco Javier García de Abajo, Carmen N Afonso, M Longo, C Wiemer, M Fanciulli, Paul Kühler, Mario Mosbacher, Paul Leiderer

Ultraviolet optical near-fields of microspheres imprinted in phase change films

Applied physics letters [AIP], Volume: 96 Issue: 19 Pages: 193108

J-L Battaglia, Andrzej Kusiak, Vincent Schick, Andrea Cappella, Claudia Wiemer, Massimo Longo, Enrico Varesi

Thermal characterization of the Si O 2-Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 interface from room temperature up to 400° C

Journal of Applied Physics [AIP], Volume: 107 Issue: 4 Pages: 044314

M Longo, A Parisini, L Tarricone, S Vantaggio, C Bocchi, F Germini, L Lazzarini

Structural and optical characterization of MOVPE grown InGaP/GaAs MQWs for advanced photovoltaic devices

Journal of Crystal Growth [North-Holland], Volume: 311 Issue: 18 Pages: 4293-4300

A Abrutis, V Plausinaitiene, M Skapas, C Wiemer, O Salicio, M Longo, A Pirovano, Jan Siegel, W Gawelda, S Rushworth, C Giesen

Chemical vapor deposition of chalcogenide materials for phase-change memories

Microelectronic Engineering [Elsevier], Volume: 85 Issue: 12 Pages: 2338-2341

M Longo, O Salicio, C Wiemer, R Fallica, A Molle, M Fanciulli, C Giesen, B Seitzinger, PK Baumann, M Heuken, S Rushworth

Growth study of GexSbyTez deposited by MOCVD under nitrogen for non-volatile memory applications

Journal of Crystal Growth [North-Holland], Volume: 310 Issue: 23 Pages: 5053-5057

R Magnanini, L Tarricone, A Parisini, M Longo, E Gombia

Investigation of GaAs/InGaP superlattices for quantum well solar cells

Thin Solid Films [Elsevier], Volume: 516 Issue: 20 Pages: 6734-6738

Carlo Ghezzi, Renato Magnanini, Antonella Parisini, Luciano Tarricone, Enos Gombia, Massimo Longo

Determination of the valence band offset of MOVPE-grown In 0.48 Ga 0.52 P∕ Ga As multiple quantum wells by admittance spectroscopy

Physical Review B [American Physical Society], Volume: 77 Issue: 12 Pages: 125317

E Gombia, C Ghezzi, A Parisini, L Tarricone, M Longo

Admittance spectroscopy of GaAs/InGaP MQW structures

Materials Science and Engineering: B [Elsevier], Volume: 147 Issue: 2-3 Pages: 171-174

B Fraboni, T Cesca, A Gasparotto, G Mattei, F Boscherini, G Impellizzeri, F Priolo, R Jakomin, M Longo, L Tarricone

Electrical and structural characterization of Fe implanted GaInP

Physica B: Condensed Matter [North-Holland], Volume: 401 Pages: 278-281

Beatrice Fraboni, Erio Piana, Tiziana Cesca, Andrea Gasparotto, Massimo Longo, Roberto Jakomin, Luciano Tarricone

Deep levels controlling the electrical properties of Fe-implanted GaInP∕ GaAs

Applied physics letters [AIP], Volume: 90 Issue: 18 Pages: 182106

T Cesca, A Verna, G Mattei, A Gasparotto, B Fraboni, G Impellizzeri, F Priolo, L Tarricone, M Longo

Electrical Activation Of Fe Impurities Introduced In III‐V Semiconductors By High Temperature Ion Implantation

AIP Conference Proceedings [AIP], Volume: 893 Issue: 1 Pages: 241-242

T Cesca, A Gasparotto, G Mattei, B Fraboni, F Boscherini, M Longo, L Tarricone

Local structure of Fe incorporated in GaInP layers by high temperature ion implantation

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms [North-Holland], Volume: 257 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 332-335

C Ghezzi, R Magnanini, A Parisini, M Longo

Nonlinear electric field effects in the magnetoresistance of n-type GaSb

Journal of applied physics [AIP], Volume: 99 Issue: 12 Pages: 123709

T Cesca, A Gasparotto, A Verna, B Fraboni, G Impellizzeri, F Priolo, L Tarricone, M Longo

Incorporation of active Fe impurities in GaInP by high temperature ion implantation

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms [North-Holland], Volume: 242 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 653-655

M Begotti, C Ghezzi, M Longo, R Magnanini, A Parisini, L Tarricone, S Vantaggio

Zinc doped GaAs epitaxial layers MOVPE grown by liquid metalorganic sources

Crystal Research and Technology: Journal of Experimental and Industrial Crystallography [WILEY‐VCH Verlag], Volume: 40 Issue: 10‐11 Pages: 976-981

M Begotti, M Longo, R Magnanini, L Tarricone, E Gombia, R Mosca, M Lynch, K Barnham, M Mazzer, G Hill

Electrical and photoelectrical properties of a GaAs‐based p‐i‐n structure grown by MOVPE

Crystal Research and Technology: Journal of Experimental and Industrial Crystallography [WILEY‐VCH Verlag], Volume: 40 Issue: 10‐11 Pages: 1033-1038

Massimo Longo

Advances in nanowire PCM

Advances in Non-Volatile Memory and Storage Technology [Woodhead Publishing], Pages: 443-518

G Salviati, F Rossi, N Armani, L Lazzarini, L Nasi, V Grillo, A Passaseo, R Cingolani, M Longo, O Martinez

Depth resolved cathodoluminescence study of optical transitions in MOVPE grown hexagonal GaN

Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2001 [CRC Press], Pages: 251-254

G Salviati, F Rossi, N Armani, L Lazzarini, L Nasi, V Grillo, A Passaseo, R Cingolani, M Longo, O Martinez

Depth resolved cathodoluminescence study of optical transitions in MOVPE grown hexagonal GaN

Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2001 [CRC Press], Pages: 251-254

M Longo

Nanowire phase change memory (PCM) technologies: principles, fabrication and characterization techniques

Advances in Non-Volatile Memory and Storage Technology [Woodhead Publishing], Pages: 200-230

Y Nishi, R Bez, A Pirovano, R Shirota, R Micheloni, L Crippa, G Molas, L Masoero, V Della Marca, G Gay, B de Salvo, S Raoux, M Longo, K Kamiya, MY Yang, K Shiraishi, B Magyari-Köpe, G Bersuker, DC Gilmer, JR Jameson, M Van Buskirk, GM Huang, Y Ho, A Kiazadeh, HL Gomes, W Kwon, T Eshita, T Tamura, Y Arimoto, H Ohno, T Endoh, T Hanyu, Y Ando, S Ikeda

Contributor contact details

Advances in Non-Volatile Memory and Storage Technology [], Pages: xi-xiii

M Longo

Nanowire phase change memory (PCM) technologies: properties and performance

Advances in Non-Volatile Memory and Storage Technology [Woodhead Publishing], Pages: 231-261

A Cappella, J-L Battaglia, V Schick, A Kusiak, C Wiemer, M Longo, B Hay

Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys

Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources [Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg], Pages: 273-283

Jean-Luc Battaglia, A Kusiak, C Rossignol, Christophe Pradere, Jean-Christophe Batsale, A Sommier, C Wiemer, R Fallica, M Longo, V Sousa

THERMAL PROPERTIES MEASUREMENTS OF PHASE-CHANGE ALLOYS WITHIN THE CONFIGURATION OF NANOSTRUCTURES AND DEVICES

International Heat Transfer Conference Digital Library [Begel House Inc.],

M Longo, S Cecchi, S Selmo, M Fanciulli, C Wiemer, J-L Battaglia, A Saci, A Kusiak

MOCVD growth and thermal analysis of Sb2Te3thin films and nanowires

2015 1st Workshop on Nanotechnology in Instrumentation and Measurement (NANOFIM) [IEEE], Pages: 150-154

M Longo, S Cecchi, S Selmo, M Fanciulli, C Wiemer, J-L Battaglia, A Saci, A Kusiak

MOCVD growth and thermal analysis of Sb2Te3thin films and nanowires

2015 1st Workshop on Nanotechnology in Instrumentation and Measurement (NANOFIM) [IEEE], Pages: 150-154

S Vangelista, E Cinquanta, C Martella, M Longo, A Lamperti, R Mantovan, M Alia, F BASSO BASSET, F Pezzoli, A Molle

The Role of Deposition Temperature and Substrate for Scalable and Uniform Deposition of MoS2 Grown by Vapour-Solid Chemical Reaction

GraphITA 2015 [],

Huu Tan Nguyen, Andrzej Kusiak, Jean Luc Battaglia, Cecile Gaborieau, Yanick Anguy, Roberto Fallica, Claudia Wiemer, Alessio Lamperti, Massimo Longo

Thermal Properties of In-Sb-Te Thin Films for Phase Change Memory Application

Advances in Science and Technology [Trans Tech Publications], Volume: 95 Pages: 113-119

T Cesca, A Verna, A Gasparotto, B Fraboni, G Impellizzeri, F Priolo, L Tarricone, M Longo

High resistivity in GaInP/GaAs by high temperature Fe ion implantation

International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2005 [IEEE], Pages: 653-656